The portrait of William Wentworth, the second Earl of Strafford, was painted by Thomas Bardwell and is now on display in Cannon Hall Museum.
The work was able to be brought back to the borough thorough a designated fund as part of Barnsley Museums’ partnership with the National Trust and Northern College, which recently secured a sustainable future for Wentworth Castle Gardens.
The painting highlights the historical links between Cannon Hall and Stainborough Castle which later went on to become Wentworth Castle.
Matt Gladstone, executive director for place, said: “We are absolutely delighted that a painting of this calibre is back in Barnsley where it belongs for visitors and residents to enjoy.
“We understand how important the preservation of important work such as this and are pleased that it will be in the care of our brilliant museum service who will ensure its future for generations to come.
“As conservators of the borough’s heritage, it’s the duty of Barnsley Museums, where possible, to keep significant artwork such as this in the area for people to experience and enjoy.
“It also provides visitors with a unique opportunity to learn more about Barnsley’s rich and fascinating history.”