The new pilot will look at targeted rapid testing using lateral flow test kits which are different from the usual swab testing kits.
The tests require no need for lab processing and results are processed within an hour.
Julia Burrows, director of Public Health in Barnsley, said: “I’m acutely aware that there is a need to break the chain of transmission of the Covid-19 infection in our communities.
“To meet this need, I’m pleased to tell you that Barnsley is to be part of a South Yorkshire wide, targeted rapid testing pilot.
“The challenge we currently face is that some people who have Covid-19 don’t show any symptoms.
“This means that they’re spreading the virus to other, potentially vulnerable people.
“Rapid testing using the lateral flow tests means we can test high-risk groups in our region, helping us to identify cases and getting people to self-isolate quickly to break the chain of infection.”
Council bosses are currently developing plans on how the rapid testing can work at a local level and which groups of people would benefit the most.
More information will be released in due course.