The petition, launched online by Speed Awareness Group Ardsley (SAGA) member Darren Webster, calls for better speed calming measures on Doncaster Road, a 40mph dual carriageway.
Two road traffic collisions also occurred on the road in the same week the signatures rocketed.
It has been subject of many campaigns by the group over recent years - including one to secure 20mph signs on the road outside Oakhill Primary Academy - which sits part way up the hill and currently has no crossing.
Work has started on the installation of the new 20mph signs outside the primary school and they are planned to be completed any day now, but the group have said much more needs to be done.
The petition states: “Residents of Stairfoot and Ardsley are requesting various actions to limit the excessive speeding of vehicles on the A635 dual carriageway between Stairfoot roundabout and Darfield.
“This is to protect parents, children, disabled people and the elderly and to give access to Oakhill Primary School and other amenities, whilst crossing the dual carriageway.
“These actions would contribute to the reduction of pollution caused by speeding vehicles.”
It calls for measures including installation of speed-measured distance cameras, installation of new 40mph traffic calming signage - including police enforced camera signage - and installation of pedestrian crossings.
SAGA member John Evans has been campaigning with the group since the outset and said it is about time something was done.
“It’s a disaster waiting to happen,” he said.
“We’re continuing to press for better measures and hopefully this petition will help us do that.
“This road is a big problem - something really needs to be done.”
Coun Chris Lamb, cabinet spokesperson for environment and transport, added: “We will always investigate any road safety concerns raised by residents, and as a member of the South Yorkshire Safer Roads Partnership, we work with agencies such as the local police and fire service to make our roads safer.
“The council has recently been made aware of this petition, which we understand has yet to be submitted to us.
“I can reassure residents that we will look into any issues and, once we’ve received the petition, we will consider current and proposed interventions - including new speed signs set to be installed on Doncaster Road in the next few weeks.”