Officers were called by the Yorkshire Ambulance Service on Wednesday night to report that a 71-year-old woman was injured on St Helen’s Close in Thurnscoe.
A burglary had just taken place at the address, before the woman return home and tried to stop her vehicle being taken.
The car then collided with the pensioner, causing ‘significant injuries’.
She was taken to hospital where she remains in a serious, but stable condition.
The two suspects then left in a separate red-coloured vehicle and detectives are continuing to work to locate it.
Detective Chief Inspector Ben Wood, from the Barnsley district, said: “This was a horrifying incident involving an elderly woman who was trying to stop a crime being committed but has been left seriously injured in hospital.
“Her family are understandably distressed and I want to ensure we do everything we can to find the people responsible and bring them to justice.
“We already have a number of officers following up a number of lines of enquiry.
“Local officers will also be patrolling the area throughout the day to provide reassurance to the community.
“My plea is to the community.
“If you know who was involved in this terrible crime then I urge you to contact us.
“If anyone has any information, or anyone who may have dash-cam footage, please get in touch with us as it may assist with our ongoing investigation.”
Anyone with information is asked to report it online via the website, live chat or by calling 101 quoting incident number 1016 of March 22.