Paramedics and the police were called to junction 37 at around 12.10am after a 33-year-old man was noticed on the bridge in Dodworth.
The northbound carriageway of the M1 was shut until 1.30am while the emergency services dealt with the incident.
A spokesperson for South Yorkshire Police said: “Officers were called to junction 37 at around 12.10am after concern for the safety of a man on the bridge over the motorway.
“On arrival the man had fallen from the bridge, the 33-year-old was taken to hospital with serious injuries.
“They are not thought to be life-threatening.”